Sabtu, 28 Julai 2007

The Great Smog of London

Chirag Trivedi BBC News Online, London
Since Roman times, London has been known to people abroad as a land of mists and fogs. Until recently visitors to the city could take home with them tins of 'London fog'.
But the London smog of 1952 had more serious consequences.
On Friday 5 December 1952 a dense smoke-filled fog shrouded London and brought the city to a standstill for four days.
Motor vehicles were abandoned, trains were disrupted and airports were forced to close.
Cattle casualties
A Ministry of Health report estimated that 4,075 more people had died than would have been expected to under normal conditions.
"In a city traditionally notorious for its fogs there was general agreement on its exceptional severity on this occasion," the Ministry said.
The first reported casualties of the smog were cattle at the Smithfield Show.
At Sadler's Wells, the opera La Traviata had to be abandoned after the first act because the theatre was so full of smog.

Public transport ground to a halt
But it was the coroners and doctors in the city's hospital who first became aware of its deadly effects.
Most victims died from respiratory or cardiovascular problems but only those "prone to such ailments" were affected.
The main pollutants were believed to be by-products of coal burning which was said to have reached "exceptional levels".
And high pressure, near freezing temperatures and very light winds kept the smog hanging over London.
No school
But to the great majority of healthy individuals, the smog was little more than a nuisance.
One of those that experienced it was Ken Livingstone, the current Mayor of London, who "didn't have to go to school for a few days".
"The fog was simply so thick that parents were advised not to risk letting their children get lost on the way to school, unless it was literally round the corner."
He added: "When my parents went out they had to cover their nose and mouth with a handkerchief.
The Great Smog
5-9 Dec, 1952
Laced with sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and soot
Caused by pollution and extreme cold"In response to the 1952 smog, the Government passed legislation to phase out coal fires, which meant initially many people transferred to paraffin heaters.
"I have to say that I was quite pleased because it was my job to go out and clean the fire out in the morning - raking out all the bits of unburned coal to save them for the next fire."
The battle for better air quality continues. Mr Livingstone has to meet tough targets imposed by the government and the European Union.
London has 80 monitoring stations dotted all over the city.

Air Quality minister Alun Michael visits a pollution monitoring unitInside each are computers and monitoring equipment that suck in air and measure the levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and other pollutants.
They also analyse fine particulates - very small pieces of pollution that can get deep down into the lungs.
On Thursday, after visiting one of these stations on Marylebone Road in central London, air quality minister Alun Michael said: "I remember the smogs Londoners suffered as I visited the capital most autumns as a child. They were awful.
"Nowadays, partly as a result of the Clean Air Act, we are lucky to enjoy much better air quality."
Targets missed
But it is estimated that London will not achieve the annual government targets for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and daily fine particles.
Levels for both pollutants are expected to exceed their targets along the major road networks.
In addition, NO2 levels are also expected to exceed targets for central London and around Heathrow Airport.
Despite this, Gary Fuller from the environmental research group at King's College London, said: "Air quality has improved vastly in London, simply because we don't burn much coal anymore.
"The main threat is obviously cars. It's a case of can we improve air quality fast enough as more and more cars come onto the roads."
The BBC's Tom Heap"Our air is a lot clearer than it was 50 years ago but it is not clean"

See also:
05 Dec 02 Health
Historic smog death toll rises
05 Dec 02 England
In pictures: The Great Smog of London
05 Dec 02 UK
Days of toxic darkness
05 Dec 02 England
Pollution call on smog anniversary
12 Aug 02 Science/Nature
Deadly Asian haze 'can be tamed'
10 Jul 01 Asia-Pacific
Smog fears grow across SE Asia
Internet links:
Mayor of London
Kings College London: Air Quality Index
Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs
Met Office: 1952 Smog
National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection
Big Smoke Conference The BBC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites
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by ann nabilla

Jumaat, 27 Julai 2007

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Third Edition (Hardcover)

Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Third Edition (Hardcover)
by Richard W. Boubel (Author), Donald L. Fox (Author), Bruce Turner (Author), Arthur C. Stern (Author)
Key Phrases: carrying gas stream, area emission rate, visual air quality, United States, New York, Clean Air Act

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Khamis, 26 Julai 2007

What is Air Pollution?

Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals.

There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smog, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment.

One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter . The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about .0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as "black carbon" pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quanitites of soot into the air.

Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smog and acid rain.

Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Syed Nadzri on Tuesday: Indonesia in a haze over hotspots

THE haze is causing a blurring effect in more ways than one definitely. And the latest overcast came with a statement on Friday by the Indonesian consul-general in Penang Moenir Ari Soenanda who placed a large part of the blame on Malaysian-based companies operating in Indonesia for the current haze situation in the region.
These companies, he said, were responsible for the spate of illegal logging and open burning activities. It is not clear what that was supposed to mean. But, as with what many Indonesian officials had said on several occasions previously, it sounded like Bapak Moenir was trying to absolve blame on one side by pushing it to the other. It’s very much like saying: "Hey, why are you making so much noise about all the smoke coming from Indonesia when it’s your companies which are causing the problem. Blame them."That’s exactly the same script every year for the past 20 years. And frankly, everyone here is getting fed up. It’s always like this when the haze season arrives — Indonesian officials would blame foreign companies for causing the haze; Malaysian ministers would respond by saying that none of the Malaysian companies are involved and amid all the hot air, the forests continue to burn and the smoke is blown across the border to the neighbours.
When the haze does clear, it will only either be due to the end of the dry season or a change in wind direction. And when that happens, hey presto, the debates will also simmer — till next year at least, when the replay button is pressed again. And the whole histrionic is repeated.The current episode is just starting. Scores of hotspots of forest-burning have been detected in Indonesian territory via satellite, and the northern part of the peninsula, especially Penang and Kedah, is bearing the brunt of the smoky environment. And it is only a matter of time, with a change in the wind direction, before the haze envelops other parts of the country, including the capital city and probably spoil Visit Malaysia Year in the process.So, Bapak Moenir, Malaysian companies are causing the haze. But what are the Indonesian authorities doing? To Malaysians choking on the unhealthy air, it does not matter one bit who the culprits are — Malaysians, Indonesians, Egyptians or Martians. Just take them to court, charge them, drag them to the cleaners or expel them. Do something. All we want is for the haze to stop once and for all.The offences are committed on Indonesian soil. So it is up to the Indonesian authorities to act.Sometimes we wonder what has happened to the much-talked about Asean Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution which at one time seemed like it was taking a lifetime to be signed.The pact, which was signed by all Asean members and came into force at the end of 2003, among other things, requires signatories to take legal, administrative and/or other measures to fulfil their obligations under the agreement.The agreement also contains provisions on monitoring as well as simplified customs and immigration procedures for disaster relief.Apart from that, parties are required to co-operate in developing and implementing measures to prevent and monitor transboundary haze pollution, and control sources of fires by developing early warning systems and providing mutual assistance.The agreement also requires the parties concerned to respond promptly to a request for relevant information sought by a state or states affected by such transboundary haze pollution.Quite a mouthful. But what the holy smoke happened to the agreement? Everyone wants to know.At this stage, it may be quite appropriate to recall some of the things that have been said by top Indonesian officials on the subject in recent years:• July 22, 2000: "We will take to court companies which set fires to clear forest lands. This is to give a lesson to delinquent companies so that they will be scared to burn forest land in future." — Indonesia’s then Environment Minister Sonny Keraf.• Aug 8, 2005: "I am sorry. The haze has become more acute for our neighbours in Malaysia and we are truly sorry for this." — Indonesia’s then Environment Minister Rachmat Witoeler.• Jan 12, 2006: "Indonesia will do its best to contain it and manage it. We’ll make sure we won’t wait till the dry season before acting. We promise to be more proactive." — Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.Indonesian officials, including those based in Malaysia, are not likely to take the above comments too kindly.I personally know many of them at the Indonesian embassy in Kuala Lumpur, including the ambassador himself and they are very nice people indeed.But sometimes there are things that need to be said, especially over issues like the haze which keeps recurring every year and which has become a hazard to Malaysians.There will also be those who will make use of commentaries like the above to show that the Malaysian media is hostile towards Indonesia and could disrupt the good bilateral relations.Well, if that’s the premise, then the Indonesian press is no better as could be seen from its rousing coverage of the alleged mistreatment of Indonesian migrant workers by Malaysian employers as well as the issue of the overlapping claims of the oil-rich Ambalat sea block in the Sulawesi Sea.Information Minister Datuk Seri Zainuddin Maidin said recently that he could not understand why the Indonesian mass media was actively reporting incidents which only involved 0.0001 per cent of the Indonesian manpower such as abuse and raids on illegal immigrants and deportation."The positive aspects of the successes of the majority of immigrant workers who entered Malaysia legally to eke a living and contribute to the Indonesian economic growth, and the fine treatment of Indonesian housemaids by their Malaysian employers who considered them as part of the family, were not reported to the extent that the Indonesian people had a negative perception of the Malaysian employers."All said, the Malaysian media I believe, has generally been quite accommodating and one example was its compliance to the request to stop using the term "Indons" when referring to Indonesian nationals.This has been adhered to as a matter of goodwill although this term has never been considered derogatory. After all, it’s partly newspaper language everywhere to use short words or shortened words, and that’s why words like woe (for adversity), awe (astonishing), row (quarrel), axe (exclude), quit (resignation), cut (decrease), up (increase), etc are all over the place in any newspaper.So, it was Indons for Indonesians. By the way, similar non-derogatory terms are used for other nationals as well — Aussies, Brits, Yankees and Kiwis. Nggak apa apa, Pak.

2006 Southeast Asian Haze

The 2006 Southeast Asian haze event was caused by continued uncontrolled burning from "slash and burn" cultivation in Indonesia, and affected several countries in the Southeast Asian region and beyond, such as Malaysia, Singapore, southern Thailand, and as far as Saipan[1]; the effects of the haze may have spread to South Korea.[2] Local sources of pollution partly contributed to the increased toxicity, particularly in high-pollution areas such as ports, oil refineries, and dense urban areas. In the highly urbanised and industrialised Klang Valley of Malaysia in particular, the surrounding terrain acted as a natural retainer of polluted air, aggravating the situation when the haze set in. There is a link to El Niño as well.[3].
The haze was made worse than during previous occurrences by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation which delayed the year's monsoon season. Fires in Kalimantan produce great amounts of smoke, burn a long time and are difficult to extinguish because they are on peatland, and once lit the fires can burn for months and release gases that produce sulfuric acid.[4]
Air quality across the region appeared to improve in late October as heavy rainfall doused fire in Indonesia.[5]

Countries affected


Brunei, an independent sultanate that is surrounded by East Malaysia's Sarawak state on Borneo, had been affected by the haze from Kalimantan. Rains brought some relief, and on October 8, the Pollutant Standards Index had dropped to 46, which is within the "good" range.[6] There was a brief spell of clear skies during the first week of Hari Raya, following a spell of rainy weather. But the haze returned on October 31,[7] with the Department of Environment, Parks and Recreation recording a PSI of 49.[8][9]


The fires originated mostly in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo, and on Sumatra, where they are set by swidden agriculturists employed by agroforestry concerns to clear land in order to grow pulp woods or market crops ahead of the growing season. Satellite images taken over Borneo on October 4 showed 561 "hot spots" indicating areas where fires had been set.
Officials in neighbouring countries accused Indonesian officials of doing nothing to stop the fires, though forestry ministry officials said they had firefighters working to douse the blazes on state-controlled land. However, they conceded, most of the fires were on private land.[10] Indonesia planned to deploy its military to aid fire fighting effort.[11] To recruit more people to man the fire line, the government offered two days off for civil servants who volunteered for fire duty.[12] But the country lacks equipment for fighting forest fires, having airplanes that are too small to carry enough water.[13] In a bid to obtain bigger aircraft, the government leased two Beriev Be-200 from Russia, which are capable of skimming over water and taking on loads for sustained firefighting efforts.[14] The planes, which will be flown by Russians and maintained by Russian technicians, were due to begin operations on November 1.[15]
The fires have closed schools, delayed and cancelled airline flights, disrupted shipping and forced Indonesians to don face masks. Cities affected include Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan and Pekanbaru, Riau.[16][17] The haze was blamed for a Mandala Airlines flight from Balikpapan, the provincial capital of East Kalimantan, skidding off the runway upon landing at Tarakan on October 3, when visibility was reported at around 400 metres.[18] It has caused breathing problems for people in Riau and in Jambi Province.[19] On October 21, 12 airlines cancelled domestic flights from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport due to smog at many destinations, including Jambi, Banjarmasin, Jayapura, Semarang, Surabaya, Bengkulu, Denpasar, Makassar, Pekanbaru and Padang.[20]
An October 20 report by Malaysian government news agency BERNAMA offered a first-hand account of the scene in Kalimantan: "The suffocating smell of smoke, sore throat and eyes got worse when this reporter and a photographer stepped foot in central Kalimantan, forcing them to put on face masks. Throughout the 200-kilometre journey from Banjarmasin to Palangkaraya, what could be seen of the forests on both sides of the road was a landscape of blackish soil with smoke still billowing from the ground in some areas and of withering trees and plants. The area was foggy and dusty as the air was filled with flying ashes and other particles."
Local villagers, the report said, appeared to be unconcerned with the smog, saying it was "normal". "If we do not burn the forest, where are we going to get our food from?" a villager said.[21]
On the environmental front, fires destroyed 100 hectares of the Tesso Nilo National Park in Riau Province.[22] At the Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan, the haze adversely affected the orangutans.[22]


The effects of the haze started in early July and affected the northern Malaysian states severely.[23] However, the haze had cleared substantially throughout Peninsular Malaysia from August 29, 2006 due to raining season. The rain reduced the number of hotspots throughout Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. On the August 30, 2006, The Star reported that Kuala Lumpur would be free of haze during the Merdeka Day. In the late evening just before midnight on August 31, 2006, the visibility in the Klang Valley was recorded to be very good.
Unfortunately, the haze returned again in late September when Muslim Malaysians were experiencing Ramadan. This was partly due to a change of wind direction towards the southwest, partially caused by Typhoon Xangsane.[24] The worst hit place was Kuching. The Sarawak state government had declared that schools would close if the API breaches the 300 mark.[25] The worst affected area in Peninsular Malaysia is Johor Bahru which recorded an API of 150 on October 7 and October 8. For now, many people are wearing masks to prevent themselves from inhaling excessive amounts of haze. On October 7, visibility in parts of East Malaysia fell to 300 metres. On or about October 9, the worst of the haze in Peninsular seemed to be in the state of Negeri Sembilan, where visibility in Sepang fell briefly to 500 metres and the API in Nilai reached 198, before the rain relieved the haze partially. Shortly thereafter changing winds caused conditions to improve rapidly. Sarawak has started cloud seeding attempts to try to encourage rainfall that will help relieve the haze. [26] Each cloud seeding session costs at least RM50,000 (roughly US$14,000).[27] On October 21, the winds has changed direction and started to blow the hazes away from Malaysia, and the following day, heavy rain has cleared the haze. Later on October 26, the heavy rain returned again, and there were isolated showers in Klang Valley. The Star reported that the hazy days are soon coming to an end as the monsoon season is approaching.


While the haze largely spared Singapore with 24-hour Pollutant Standards Index readings within the "Good" range for 15 days in September and the rest in the "Moderate" range and no higher than a reading of 66[28], its harmful effects became more prevalent in October.
On October 7, 2006, the 3-hour PSI reading breached the 100 mark at 8 a.m. and entered unhealthy levels for the first time in the year, as winds from neighbouring Sumatra blew the haze to Singapore[29]. At 10 a.m., it hit 130, the highest in three years, before subsiding to 80 at 4 p.m. and climbing rapidly to 150 at 9 p.m.[30], the worst since 1997, before ending the day at 136, still in the unhealthy range.[31]
Although the air quality was set to improve with the arrival of the Northeast monsoon rains in mid-October, southeasterly winds extended the hazy season.[32] A mild El Niño effect delayed the starting of the showers to late October or early November,[22] or even until the end of November. The prolonged haze could be attributed to the extended dry season, which put the rains on hold and affected wind patterns which brought the haze to Singapore. Intermittent showers could occur in the pre-monsoon period, but these would do little in increasing air quality. The unpredictable winds in the pre-monsoon period could bring haze from either Sumatra or Kalimantan.[33]
Air quality remained in the moderate range for the next week[28] until October 14, when the 3-hour PSI readings gradually increased from 53 at 6 a.m. to peak at an unhealthy 116 at 10 p.m.[34]This time, majority of the haze came from Kalimantan[35].
Similarly, on October 15, the PSI readings increased from 69 at 6 a.m. to 98 at 3 p.m. and 4 p.m.[36], 3 points short of reaching the unhealthy range. This eased to 82 by midnight.[37] As winds remained southeasterly, haze from Kalimantan blew across the South China Sea to Singapore.[38]
The next day, on October 16, the PSI stayed in the 80s in the morning, before shooting up once again into the unhealthy range, hitting a high of 130 at 4 p.m. and 5 p.m. The 3-hour PSI remained in unhealthy levels for 8 consecutive hours, between 2 p.m. and 9 p.m.[39] The haze obscured the sun, and symptoms of exposure to haze resurfaced in the general population.[40] The 24-hour PSI for October 16 reached 98,[28] just 3 points short of unhealthy. Visibility dropped to as low as 1 km in some areas, compared to the usual 20 km.[39]
The PSI on October 17 gradually increased from the moderate range in the morning to slip into the unhealthy range at 4 p.m., reaching 106,[41] before declining back to 100 in the moderate range at 10 p.m.[42] The hazy conditions were expected to persist.[41]
On October 19, the PSI crept into the unhealthy range at 106 at 2 p.m.[43], peaking at 113 at 4 p.m. The National Environment Agency reported that the situation would not improve the next day.[44]
Throughout the early morning on October 20, the PSI kept in the 90s, before reaching a high of 103 at 8 a.m.[33] This dropped to 74 by 7 p.m., although the PSI remained in the 90s in the afternoon.[45] Even though rain fell in some areas, this was not enough to "alleviate the haze situation". The NEA forecasted thunderstorms over the weekend, but the southeasterly winds would continue to prevail.[46] The 24-hour PSI on October 20 also reached the unhealthy range at 102.[28]
Later in October, though, the situation began to improve, with the PSI hitting a low of 11 at 2 p.m. on October 26.
However, in early November, intermonsoonal winds brought slight haze back to Singapore, with the 3-hour PSI in the moderate range most of the time.
The highest 3-hour average PSI ever recorded was 226 in September 1997.[47]

While some Singaporeans began donning face masks, others frequented shopping malls and public places like VivoCity, with many shopping before Deepavali at Little India,[48] and going to Geylang Serai's annual Hari Raya bazaar. Stallholders said that the haze had not affected their business.[49] However, Singaporeans generally kept indoors,[37] with some staying away from East Coast Park.[48]
The government announced plans for a haze action plan if the situation became "extremely dangerous", which included priority treatment for haze-related illnesses.[50] Health Minister Khaw Boon Wan said that there was "very little that (could) be done to stop the haze", and advised people to remain indoors, especially those with prior respiratory conditions.[51]
Some minor haze-related illness began to surface, but free clinics across the island did not report any increase in patients with this symptoms.[34] However, attendance figures at Polyclinics islandwide increased by 600 cases to about 15,000 cases of haze-related conditions in the first week of October as compared to the same period last month.[50] This is despite the National Healthcare Group reporting that the number of people "complaining of the same ailments" has decreased from the same period last year.[52]
Air purifier sales shot up during the hazy period. Best Denki, an electronic store, sold S$350,000 worth of air purifiers and related items in 4 days, a 300 percent increase. However, experts from the Institute of Environmental Science & Engineering at the Nanyang Technological University said that only some of these products, like High Efficiency Particulate air filters, would effectively remove small particles from air. Other kinds of air purifiers like ionizing purifiers gave off ozone which could cause symptoms similar to those caused by the haze. The experts recommended regularly cleaning the filter media and opening windows to get some fresh air at night.[53]
The western region, which includes Boon Lay, Choa Chu Kang and Jurong, seemed to be the "epicentre" of the haze. Residents there complained of the worse conditions in their area, saying that it felt "hotter than usual", and health problems were more widespread. The air quality levels in the west have consistently been the worst, but only by several points. Some speculated that the more polluted air was caused by the many construction sites and industrial parks in Jurong and Tuas, but NEA refuted this, claiming that they did not contribute to the haze. Polyclinics in Jurong and Bukit Batok have an increase of 20 percent for patients with respiratory problems and asthma.[52]
Schools islandwide restricted outdoor activities and had to rethink post-examination activities and training or revert to wet-weather programmes. The Singapore Sports School's swim team had to cut back on training when the haze reached unhealthy levels even though they were in the midst of various international competitions.[54] The Ministry of Education recommended that schools suspend all outdoor activities when the PSI reading passes 100, but some schools chose to move indoors regardless of the PSI.[55]
Many Singaporean "fitness buffs" have also made the move indoors. Fitness clubs reported increases in turn-outs and check-ins, utilizing gym facilities rather than outdoor activities. Rock climbers were also affected, and began to move activities indoors instead.[56]
The haze has also caused increased sales and rental of entertainment VCD and DVD titles, but cinema attendance is unchanged.[57]
The National Environment Agency website received about 170,000 hits on October 14, as compared to the usual 60,000, and caused the server to temporary go down due to the sheer volume of traffic.[22]
According to economists, Singapore has suffered a US$50 million economic loss due to this year's onset of haze.[58]


In July, the southern Thai provinces of Pattani and Satun suffered an on-and-off bout of smog, with the levels of pollutants in Satun being high enough to constitute a health hazard.[59] In all, seven provinces were affected by the haze in July and August.
Haze was again reported on October 6, with respiratory illnesses and eye irritation reported in Narathiwat.[60] Visibility and air quality were also affected in Songkhla, Satun and Yala. Health warnings were issued and surgical masks were issued to residents. Three days later, meteorological officials reported that the haze had thinned to almost normal visibility.[61]
Strong winds in the region brought haze from Indonesia back into Songkhla, Satun, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces on October 17. Visibility in Yala and Songkhla was reduced to less than a kilometre, and officials warned fishermen going out to the Andaman Sea and Gulf of Thailand to "stay vigilant". Drivers were also asked to turn on their headlights.[62]

ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Transboundary Haze Pollution

Malaysia and Singapore criticized the way Indonesia handled the issue. Both urged the latter to ratify the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. The Malaysian Environment Minister Azmi Khalid said "Frustration is an understatement", directed toward Indonesia. [63]. There was also a protest in front of the Indonesia embassy in Kuala Lumpur, organized by local political parties.[64] Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong expressed disappointment toward Indonesia soon after Azmi Khalid made his view public.[65] In response to the letter, Indonesian President apologized for the regional haze.[66] Indonesia has earlier stated that it lacked the resources to combat the burning effectively.[67]
Singapore proposed regional talks on the haze, to be held in Singapore. Indonesia, however, requested such talks to be held in Pekan Baru, Kalimantan instead.[68] The request was agreed to and talks were held on October 13 2006. At the meeting, Malaysia proposed the setting up of a regional fund to help combat the environmental disaster. [69]
With the arrival of the northeastern winter monsoons in December, the haze problem was effectively ended for 2006.

1997 Southeast Asian Haze

The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air quality disaster which occurred during the second half of 1997, its after-effects causing widespread atmospheric visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. The total costs of the Southeast Asian haze are estimated at nine billion dollars(US) due mainly to health care and disruption of air travel and business activities.
The influence of the 1997 fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra on ambient air quality was evident by July and peaked in September/October before weakening by November, when the delayed monsoonal rain extinguished the fires and improved air quality within the region. During the peak episode, satellite imagery (NASA/TOMS aerosol index maps) showed a haze layer which expanded over an area of more than 3 million km², covering large parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Its northward extension partially reached Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Thailand. During this period, particulate matter concentrations frequently exceeded national ambient air quality standards. Monthly mean horizontal visibility at most locations in Sumatra and Kalimantan in September was below 1 km and daily maximum visibility was frequently below 100 metres.


The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was caused mainly by slash and burn techniques adopted by farmers in Indonesia. Slash and burn has been extensively used for many years as the cheapest and easiest means to clear the lands for traditional agriculture. Fire is also used during the long fallow rotation of the so-called jungle rubber in Sumatra and Kalimantan to remove most of the biomass, including the woody parts before new plantations are re-established.
Fire may also be deliberately used as a weapon to claim property on the islands and provinces where land ownership is not clear, an action taken by both smallholders and large operators alike. After burning out its previous owner, the smallholder or large operator plants their own crops there, gaining de facto control over the disputed land.
During the fire season, dry fuels readily ignite and lead to large wild fires. These accidental fires may have the same underlying socio-economic and institutional problems. In cases like this, fire suppression can be very difficult and costly especially when they reach the highly flammable peat-swamp areas.


Particulate matter was the air pollutant that predominantly contribued to the haze and degradation in ambient air quality standards during this crisis. In all countries affected by the smoke haze, an increase of acute health outcomes was observed. Health effects; included emergency room visits due to respiratory symptoms such as asthma, upper respiratory infection, decreased lung function as well as eye and skin irritation, were caused mainly by this particulate matter. In Singapore, for instance, health surveillance showed a 30% increase in hospital attendance due to air quality related symptoms. Generally, children and the elderly, as well as those with pre-existing respiratory and cardiac diseases were the most susceptible to adverse health outcomes from the haze exposure. The smoke haze episode has added to the urban and industrial air pollution in Southeast Asia, causing it to reach alarming levels in many metropolitan areas.
By scattering and absorbing light, the fire-related particulate also resulted in reduced visibility; impairing transportation by air, land and water and seriously affecting the economies of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Among the economic sectors affected most were air, land and sea transportation, construction, tourism and agricultural industries. EEPSEA/WWF roughly estimated the economic value of the damages caused by the 1997 fires and haze. They estimated one billion US$ from haze-related damages for Indonesia only. The damages to Malaysia and Singapore are figured at 0.4 billion US$. Including the fire related damages, the total damages are estimated to amount to 4.5 billion US$. However, a variety of the damages such as decreased quality of life, loss of biodiversity and atmospheric impacts are difficult to establish.
Fire-related smoke haze episodes also reveal a social component: a large part of the population in Southeast Asia do not have the financial means to buy protective measures such as respiratory masks and air conditioning, nor are they able to refrain from outdoor work when air pollution is high.

Responses in the region

The 1997/98 smoke haze episode resulted in an intensification of regional measures towards cooperation in fire and smoke management which were initiated in the aftermath of similar episodes in 1991 and 1994. These measures include the establishment of ASEAN Haze Technical Task Force and the implementation of Regional and National Haze Action Plans. These plans define the ASEAN’s countries contributions to fire prevention, monitoring, fighting and other mitigation measures. Among others, it is also targeted to upgrade the national air quality and meteorological monitoring networks in order to strengthen the region’s early warning and monitoring system in respect to smoke haze.
This incident made evident that in addition to sound fire management, a fundamental revision of the current land conversion and fire use policies is required to prevent the reoccurrence of similar episodes. Ground-based and airborne investigations of the smoke haze indicated that fires on peat swamp vegetation made a substantial contribution to the smoke haze development. However, this vegetation is estimated to have contributed only 30% of the total area burnt. Given this apparent particular relevance of peat swamp fires to the development of transboundary smoke haze, emission reduction and control strategies will have to focus on the prevention of fires in this type of vegetation as a matter of priority.
Future land use management will also have to consider 'air use' management. The health impacts and economic damages of the 1997/98 haze demonstrated that controlling future haze events represents an influencing factor for public and economic prosperity in the Southeast Asian region.


Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. It occurs when dust and smoke particles accumulate in relatively dry air. When weather conditions block the dispersal of smoke and other pollutants they concentrate and form a usually low-hanging shroud that impairs visibility and may become a respiratory health threat. Industrial pollution can result in dense haze, which is known as smog.
Sources for haze particles include farming (ploughing in dry weather), traffic, industry, forest fires and peat field fire.
Seen from afar (e.g. approaching airplane), haze is brownish, while mist is bluish-grey. While haze formation takes place in relatively dryish air, mist formation is in humid air. However, one complication is that haze particles can act as condensation nuclei for mist droplets.

Haze In Southeast Asia

Haze is a regular problem in Southeast Asia caused by land and forest fires in Indonesia, especially Sumatra and Kalimantan. Farmers and plantation owners are usually responsible for the fires, which they use to clear tracts of land for further plantings. Those fires mainly affect Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and occasionally Guam and Saipan[1] [2] The economic losses of the fires in 1997 have been estimated at US$9.3 billion [3]. This includes damages in agriculture production, destruction of forest lands, health, transportation, tourism, and other economic endeavours. Not included are social, environmental, and psychological problems and long-term health effects. The latest bout of haze to occur in Malaysia, Singapore and the Malacca Straits is in October 2006, and was caused by smoke from fires in Indonesia being blown across the Straits of Malacca by south-westerly winds.

Singapore's Downtown Core on 7 October 2006, when it was affected by forest fires in Sumatra, Indonesia.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reacted and signed Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, formed a Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP) and established a co-ordination and support unit (CSU). RHAP, with the help of Canada, established a monitoring and warning system for forest/vegetation fires and implemented a Fire Danger Rating System (FDRS). The Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) [4] has issued a daily rating since September 2003. The Indonesians have been ineffective at enforcing legal policies on errant farmers.

Pollution Index

The severity of haze is often measured using automated optical instruments such as Nephelometers, as haze is associated with visibility and traffic control in ports. Haze however can also be an indication of poor air quality though this is often better reflected using accurate purpose built air indexes such as the American Air Quality Index, the Malaysian API (Air Pollution Index) and the Singaporean Pollutant Standards Index.
In hazy conditions, it is likely that the index will report the suspended particulate level. The disclosure of the responsible pollutant is mandated in some jurisdictions.
The American AQI is divided into six color coded categories. Technically AQI runs only from 0 to 500. The 301 to 500 range is categorised as hazardous and colored maroon. [5]
The Malaysian API does not have a capped value; hence its most hazardous readings can go above 500. Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the affected area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area are closed. There may also be prohibitions on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the affected area excluding the food sector. So far, state of emergency rulings due to hazardous API levels were applied to the Malaysian towns of Port Klang, Kuala Selangor and the state of Sarawak during the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 1997 Southeast Asian haze.


Apakah Jerebu?

Jerebu yang kelihatan di latar langit bandar kita disebabkan oleh zarah terampai di dalam atmosfera. Pada kepekatan yang tinggi, zarahan ini terserak dan menyerap cahaya matahari menyebabkan ketampakan mengufuk mengurang menjadikan atmosfera kelihatan pendar baiduri. Jerebu tidak hanya terbatas di kawasan alam sekitar bandar tetapi dicerap juga di luar bandar.

Zarah Jerebu - Asal Kejadiannya

Zarah yang menyebabkan fenomena jerebu berasal daripada pelbagai sumber, antaranya ialah semulajadi dan antropogen. Sumber semula jadi termasuklah lautan, hutan dan permukaan bumi. Walau bagaimanapun kebanyakan zarahan adalah daripada aktiviti manusia seperti pembakaran secara terbuka, pembukaan tanah, pengunaan kenderaan bermotor dan pembakaran bahan api di dalam dandang industri.

Keadaan di Malaysia yang Membantu Pembentukan Jerebu

Di tropika, laju angin biasanya perlahan. Bagi tempoh tertentu terutamanya semasa Monsun Barat Daya, keadaan atmosfera sangat stabil dan pergerakan udara mengufuk dan menegak berkurang. Dalam keadaan ini, pembentukan awan tidak aktif menyebabkan cuaca kering. Beberapa faktor seperti tempoh cuaca kering yang panjang, atmosfera yang stabil dan sumber pencemaran yang banyak di bandar atau luar bandar merupakan ramuan unggul pembentukan jerebu. Zarahan yang dibebaskan terperangkap di dalam atmosfera jisim udara bergenang dan meningkatkan kepekatannya. Di Semenanjung Malaysia, jerebu biasanya berlaku dari bulan Januari ke Februari dan Jun ke Ogos.
Sebaliknya, semasa Monsun Timur Laut, angin lengas timur laut yang umumnya bertiup kuat dari Laut China Selatan sering menurunkan kelengasannya di daratan sebagai hujan menyeluruh, oleh itu jerebu jarang kelihatan.

Apakah yang Menyebabkan Jerebu Hilang?

Atmosfera kita berubah-ubah, demikian juga halnya terdapat hari yang berjerebu dan hari cerah. Apakah yang berlaku ? Zarahan di atmosfera disingkirkan melalui beberapa proses. Zarah yang lebih berat mendap ke bumi melalui pengendapan graviti.
Proses basuhan hujan melibatkan pemeluwapan wap ke atas zarah kumin bagi membentuk titis air yang akhirnya menghasilkan awan. Zarahan juga disingkirkan melalui perlanggaran dan perlekatan dengan turunnya titis hujan melalui proses yang disebut cucian.
Golakan juga memainkan peranan membawa zarahan jerebu ke paras atmosfera tinggi untuk sebaran yang lebih berkesan. Dalam kes ini, hujan lebat / ribut petir yang menyeluruh dengan arus menaik dan menurun yang kuat boleh menyingkirkan jerebu dengan berkesan. Hujan renyai yang singkat biasanya tidak berkesan dalam menghilangkan jerebu teruk.
Jerebu, Kabus atau Kabut?

Jerebu sering disalah anggap dengan kabus atau kabut. Pada awal pagi atau selepas turunnya hujan apabila suhu rendah dan kelembapan tinggi, kabus dan kadangkala kabut terbentuk di kawasan lembah dan tanah rendah. Ianya akan hilang perlahan-lahan setelah matahari naik. Kabus dan kabut terbentuk hasil daripada pemeluwapan wap air ke atas zarah terampai di atmosfera. Dalam kajicuaca, kabus wujud jika ketampakan menjadi kurang (tanpa cuaca lain) dan kelembapan bandingan atmosfera di permukaan bumi melebihi 95%. Bila ketampakan mengufuk mengurang di bawah 1000 meter, fenomena dikelaskan sebagai kabut.

Adakah Jerebu Merbahaya?

Jerebu yang berasal daripada sumber semula jadi seperti garam laut dan debu tanah adalah tidak memudaratkan manusia. Jerebu nipis dan sementara yang wujud di kebanyakan bandar tidak memberi kesan serius pada kesihatan jangka panjang penduduk. Namun, episod jerebu yang teruk boleh membahayakan kesihatan. Kejadian terdahulu melaporkan peningkatan kejadian iritasi mata dan kerongkong serta kesukaran bernafas kepada mereka yang sensitif. Semasa episod jerebu, orang awam digesa supaya mengikut arahan / nasihat yang dikeluarkan oleh pihak berkuasa kesihatan.

Bagaimana Kita Boleh Kurangkan Kejadian Jerebu?

Pertama, hindari daripada membakar bahan buangan secara terbuka. Kebanyakan kejadian jerebu setempat disebabkan oleh aktiviti ini. Peningkatan kenderaan bermotor juga merupakan sumber utama zarahan jerebu di bandar. Untuk mengurangkan jerebu, kenderaan perlulah diselenggara dengan baik disamping memilih bahan api yang rendah bahan cemarnya. Pembukaan tanah secara meluas bukan sahaja menyebabkan hakisan dan penurunan gred tanah, malah merupakan juga sumber zarah terampai di atmosfera. Promosi ke arah penanaman semula pokok dan mengurangkan pembukaan tanah boleh mengurangkan jerebu. Perlu diingat bahawa setiap individu mempunyai peranan untuk mengekalkan kualiti alam sekitar sebagai warisan generasi akan datang.

Apakah Peranan Kerajaan?

Dua agensi pusat yang terlibat secara terus dengan hal-hal berkaitan jerebu ialah Jabatan Alam Sekitar dan Perkhidmatan Kajicuaca Malaysia (PKM). Kedua-duanya di bawah Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar. PKM memonitor keadaan atmosfera berhubung dengan cuaca disamping beberapa parameter yang berkaitan dengan kualiti udara ambien. Salah satu parameter yang diukur ialah kepekatan jumlah zarah terampai yang berkaitan secara langsung dengan keamatan jerebu. Parameter cuaca lain seperti ketampakan mengufuk, kelembapan bandingan dan halaju angin merupakan petunjuk penting dalam memahami fenomena jerebu dan meramal kejadian dan kehilangannya. Aktiviti pemonitoran dan penyelidikan yang dijalankan oleh PKM merupakan sebahagian daripada usaha negara dalam mengawal dan mengurangkan jerebu.

Kerjasama rapat dikalangan semua agensi kerajaan dan pihak berkuasa tempatan yang berkaitan serta media massa amat diperlukan semasa episod jerebu bagi memastikan semua data yang diperlukan dalam membuat keputusan diperolehi dan sebarang nasihat dapat disebarkan dengan cepat kepada orang awam. Diperingkat serantau, ASEAN telah memulakan Pelan Kerjasama ASEAN Pengurusan Pencemaran Rentas Sempadan untuk menangani isu-isu seperti jerebu rentas sempadan.


Apakah Jerebu

Jerebu ialah satu fenomena yang disebabkan oleh kewujudan banyak partikel-partikel kecil yang tidak boleh dilihat oleh mata kasar dan terapun-apung di udara. Partikel-partikel ini mungkin berasal secara semulajadi ataupun kesan sampingan daripada aktiviti manusia. Apabila partikel-partikel ini wujud dalam kuantiti yang banyak dan berkelompok ianya boleh menyekat pancaran cahaya matahari ke bumi. Oleh yang demikian keadaan ini mengurangkan jarak pandangan mata kasar.

Punca-punca Jerebu

Punca utama jerebu adalah akibat daripada:
Pembakaran secara terbuka
Asap dari kilang
Asap dari kenderaan
Jerebu Mengancam Kesihatan Anda

Keadaan jerebu yang berterusan akan mendatangkan kesan yang buruk kepada semua orang terutama golongan yang berisiko tinggi iaitu :-
  • Kanak-kanak
  • Orang tua
  • Mereka yang mengalami penyakit : Asma, Bronkitis, radang paru-paru, penyaki paru0paru yang kronik, jantung, alahan
  • perokok
  • mereka yang sentiasa bekerja di luar pejabat atau rumah

Apakah Tanda Dan Gejala Jerebu Kepada Kesihatan

Kesan-kesan yang akan dialami setelah terdedah kepada jerebu termasuklah :

  • Terasa gatal-gatal di bahagian kerongkong dan batuk-batuk.
  • Terasa sukar untuk bernafas atau sesak nafas.
  • Mata terasa pedih dan berair.
  • Hidung berair dan kerap bersin.
  • Kulit terasa gatal-gatal.
  • Terasa sakit dada.

Cegahlah Penyakit Akibat Jerebu. Ikuti Nasihat Berikut :-

  • Mereka yang mengalami penyakit-penyakit seperti batuk, selsema, asma, sakit mata, sakit jantung atau penyakit paru-paru yang kronik hendaklah datang ke klinik dengan segera jika keadaan penyakit bertambah buruk.
  • Mereka yang di dalam kumpulan berisiko tinggi hendaklah sentiasa mengambil ubat seperti yang dinasihatkan.
  • Penutup hidung (nasal mask) hendaklah digunakan oleh semua penunggang motosikal, mereka yang bekerja di luar bangunan atau di tempat-tempat yang berhabuk dan juga mereka yang dalam kumpulan berisiko tinggi.
  • Perokok ynag mempunyai anak kecil, ibu bapa tua dan sanak saudara yang berpenyakit, jangan merokok di dalam rumah.
  • Sejauh yang boleh, orang ramai dinasihatkan supaya tinggal di dalam bangunan atau rumah.
  • Kurangkan aktiviti sukan di luar rumah.
  • Orang ramai dinasihatkan supaya sentiasa membasuh muka dan bahagian kulit yang terdedah kepada jerebu dengan air bersih.
  • Sekiranya kenderaan anda berhawa dingin, sila gunakannya.
  • Orang ramai dinasihatkan supaya sentiasa meminum air yang banyak.
  • Perokok dinasihatkan supaya tidak merokok apabila keadaan udara tidak sihat (iaitu IPU yang melebihi 100)
  • Mereka yang berisiko tinggi dinasihatkan mengambil cuti di luar kawasan yang berjerebu sekiranya keadaan jerebu berterusan pada tahap berbahaya di kawasan mereka.

Rabu, 25 Julai 2007




Udara adalah anugerah Tuhan yang sangat penting. Tanpa udara, manusia dan hidupan lain tidak boleh menjalankan proses pernafasan. Udara membekalkan oksigen yang sangat diperlukan dalam sistem pernafasan hidupan. Udara juga melambangkan sesuatu yang bermakna, kebersihan udara melambangkan kesucian, kedinginannya melambangkan kedamaian dan tiupannya melambangkan kesegaran. Namun begitu, udara tidak selamanya melambangkan kesucian atau kedamaian. Kenyataannya udara juga boleh melambangkan kerakusan menusia terhadap alam sekitar.

Sejak kebelakangan ini, udara di persekitaran bandar-bandar utama di Malaysia berjerebu. Sebelum ini, tidak siapa peduli tentang jerebu, walaupun ianya telah meliputi sebahagian besar angkasa negara ini sejak awal tahun lalu. Daripada golongan tua, dewasa, remaja hinggalah kepada anak-anak kecil semua memperkatakan tentang jerebu.

Kehadiran jerebu pada mulanya disifatkan sebagai 'kabus' waktu pagi yang secara tidak langsung menjadikan suasana pagi hari semakin hari semakin indah. Namun setelah menyedari apa sebenarnya jerebu maka masyarakat mengalami kejutan yang teramat sangat, tambahan lagi memikirkan kesihatan anak-anak yang saban hari terdedah kepada udara kotor.

Jerebu bukanlah suatu fenomena baru, tetapi berlaku sepanjang tahun mengikut tahap keadaan semasa, ianya menjadi teruk pada masa tertentu apabila habuk terlalu banyak berkumpul di udara dalam keadaan atmosfera yang stabil.


Menyebut jerebu amat mudah tetapi mungkin ada di kalangan kita yang tidak tahu apa ertinya jerebu sepenuhnya dan kesan kepada alam sekitar.

Jerebu adalah satu fenomena yang disebabkan kewujudan banyak partikel-partikel kecil (saiz: mikron) yang tidak boleh dilihat oleh mata kasar dan terapung-apung di udara. Partikel-partikel ini mungkin berasal secara semulajadi ataupun hasil/ kesan daripada aktiviti manusia. Apabila partikel-partikel ini wujud dalam kuantiti yang banyak dan berkelompok, ia boleh menyekat pancaran cahaya matahari ke bumi dan mengurangkan jarak penglihatan. Jerebu juga terjadi akibat partikel-partikel yang terbentuk oleh pelbagai sumber seperti asap kereta, rokok, habuk, pembakaran secara terbuka dan lain-lain partikel yang dikeluarkan secara langsung ke atmosfera. Partikel-partikel ini juga boleh terbentuk apabila gas-gas tercemar bertindakbalas di udara.

Dari segi definasi teknikal, jerebu (haze) ditakrifkan sebagai debu, garam atau zarah asap yang terampai dalam titisan air menyebabkan keadaan atmosfera yang sama atau jarak pandangan yang pendek.


Keadaan berjerebu adalah tanda berlakunya pencemaran udara akibat aktiviti perbandaran, perindustrian, pertanian dan seumpamanya.

Jerebu berpunca daripada pelbagai sumber dan proses. Umumnya di kawasan perbandaran dan perindustrian jerebu terhasil daripada pembentukan asap fotokimia. Asap fotokimia berpunca daripada gas nitrogen dioksida. Gas ini menyerap ultra lembayung tenaga suria. Hasilnya terbentuk nitrik oksida dan terbebasnya atom oksigen. Atom oksigen ini bergabung dengan molekul oksigen membentuk ozon. Jika wujud hidrokarbon (selain metana) dan sebatian organik yang lain, maka berlakulah pelbagai tindakbalas kimia yang rencam. Dianggarkan kira-kira 80 tindakbalas kimia berlaku sehingga mewujudkan keadaan jerebu.

Selain asap fotokimia, pancaran haba dari permukaan bumi ketika cuaca panas berbahang juga boleh menyebabkan keadaan berjerebu. Keadaan berjerebu itu diburukkan lagi jika terbentuk kabus nipis. Biasanya jarak pandang dalam keaaan berjerebu lebih kurang dua kilometer.

Punca Keadaan Jerebu Semasa

Keadaan berjerebu yang berlaku sekarang telah dikenalpasti berpunca daripada pembakaran kawasan hutan untuk dijadikan ladang di Indonesia khususnya di wilayah Sulawesi Utara, Timur Jakarta dan Sumatera. Oleh kerana Indonesia mengalami musim kemarau dan juga dikatakan menerima kesan fenomena El-Nino yang menyebabkan keadaan cuaca kering dan kebakaran merebak dengan cepat. Manakala arah angin barat daya yang bertiup dari Indonesia menyebabkan asap dari kebakaran tersebut terus dibawa ke arah negara Malaysia.


Indeks pencemaran udara (IPU) diperolehi daripada pengukuran habuk yang halus (10 mikron ke bawah) dan beberapa jenis gas yang boleh menjejaskan kesihatan iaitu karbon monoksida, sulfur dioksida, nitrogen dioksida dan ozon. IPU digunakan sebagai panduan untuk kualiti udara dan kesannya terhadap kesihatan seperti yang dicatatkan di bawah ini:-

Kadar IPU diletakkan pada nilai dan status seperti di bawah ini:-

0-50 - Baik

51-100 - Sederhana

101-200 - Tidak Sihat

201-300 - Sangat Tidak Sihat

301-500 - Berbahaya

kesan-kesan perindustrian terhadap alam sekitar

Hasil dari perkembangan industri yang pesat telah memberi kesan terhadap alam sekitar. Antara kesan sampingan itu ialah :
1. Pencemaran Udara Dan JerebuKesan daripada aktiviti-aktiviti perkilangan, telah menggalakkan pembebasan bahan-bahan seperti karbon monoksida, karbon dioksida, sulfur oksida, hidrokarbon dan lain-lain. Ini telah menyebabkan komposisi ruang udara di persekitaran Gemas tercemar dan teroksida. Pembebasan habuk terampai telah menyebabkan fenomena jerebu terutama ketika udara kering (dry air). Ini telah meningkatkan nilai IPU (Indeks Pencemar Udara) di persekitaran Gemas.
2. Fenomena Hujan AsidFenomena hujan asid ini terjadi apabila komposisi udara yang tercemar bertindakbalas dengan air hujan dan menyebabkan air hujan berasid. Bahan-bahan pencemar (pollutions) bertindak sebagai nukleus kondesas untuk menyerap wap-wap air di atmosfera dan menghasilkan sebatian-sebatian asid. Hujan asid boleh merosakkan ekosistem akuatik, membantutkan tumbesaran tumbuhan atau tanaman, meningkatkan nilai keasidan tanah dan melunturkan warna bangunan.
3. Pencemaran BauSesetengah industri khususnya industri primer atau industri pemprosesan seperti industri memproses getah, kelapa sawit, kayu balak dan sebagainya berupaya mengeluarkan sisa-sisa toksid yang berbau busuk. Sisa-sisa ini sukar dilupuskan dan tertinggal sebagai “enap cemar” di persekitaran kilang. Oleh itu, pencemaran bau sentiasa berpanjangan dan menimbulkan ketidakselesaan hidup bagi penduduk- penduduk di persekitarannya.

What is AIR pollution?


Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e.g. particulate matter), or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Worldwide air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths and cases of respiratory disease. Enforced air quality standards, like the Clean Air Act in the United States, have reduced the presence of some pollutants. While major stationary sources are often identified with air pollution, the greatest source of emissions is actually made up by mobile sources, mainly the automobiles. Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by some scientists. Others recognize the gas as being essential to life, and therefore incapable of being classed as a pollutant.

Sources of air pollution

Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas

Using a controlled burn on a field in South Georgia in preparation for spring planting.
Anthropogenic sources (human activity) related to burning different kinds of fuel
"Stationary Sources" as smoke stacks of power plants, manufacturing facilities, municipal waste incinerators
"Mobile Sources" as motor vehicles, aircraft etc.
Combustion-fired power plants
Controlled burn practices used in agriculture and forestry management
Motor vehicles generating air pollution emissions.
Marine vessels, such as container ships or cruise ships, and related port air pollution.
Burning wood, fireplaces, stoves, furnaces and incinerators
Other anthropogenic sources
Oil refining, power plant operation and industrial activity in general.
Chemicals, dust and crop waste burning in farming, (see Dust Bowl).
Fumes from paint, hair spray, varnish, aerosol sprays and other solvents.
Waste deposition in landfills, which generate methane.
Military uses, such as nuclear weapons, toxic gases, germ warfare and rocketry.
Natural sources
Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation.
Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle.
Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust.
Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires.
Volcanic activity, which produce sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates

Health effects

The World Health Organization thinks that 4.6 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution. Many of these mortalities are attributable to indoor air pollution. Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents.Published in 2005 suggests that 310,000 Europeans die from air pollution annually. Direct causes of air pollution related deaths include aggravated asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory allergies. The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology (Tier 2) could result in 12,000 fewer premature mortalities, 15,000 fewer heart attacks, 6,000 fewer emergency room visits by children with asthma, and 8,900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States.
The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal Disaster. Leaked industrial vapors from the Union Carbide factory, belonging to Union Carbide, Inc., U.S.A., killed more than 2,000 people outright and injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000 others, some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries. The United Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event when the December 4th Great Smog of 1952 formed over London. In six days more than 4,000 died, and 8,000 more died within the following months. An accidental leak of anthrax spores from a biological warfare laboratory in the former USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is believed to have been the cause of hundreds of civilian deaths. The worst single incident of air pollution to occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania in late October, 1948, when 20 people died and over 7,000 were injured. [1]
The health effects caused by air pollutants may range from subtle biochemical and physiological changes to difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics. People who exercise outdoors, for example, on hot, smoggy days increase their exposure to pollutants in the air.

[edit] Greenhouse effect and ocean acidification
The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gases, create a condition in the upper atmosphere causing a trapping of heat and leading to increased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. The effect prevents the planet from severe cooling, and so benefits all living things. It shares this property with many other gases, the largest overall forcing on Earth coming from water vapour. Other greenhouse gases include methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, NOx, and ozone. Many greenhouse gases, contain carbon, and some of that from fossil fuels.
This effect has been understood by scientists for about a century, and technological advancements during this period have helped increase the breadth and depth of data relating to the phenomenon. Mars has little atmosphere, and the little CO2 present is insufficient to prevent cooling, so the planet cannot support life. On Venus there is a massive runaway greenhouse effect, on Earth, scientists are studying the role of changes in composition of greenhouse gases from natural and anthropogenic sources for effect on climate change.
A number of studies have also investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight increases in the acidity of ocean waters and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems. However, carbonic acid is a very weak acid, and is utilized by marine organisms during photosynthesis